Reservoir Monitoring & Electromagnetic Methods

The specific content of the PTTEP course is tailored to apply borehole and electromagnetic methods to reservoir monitoring and emphasize the strength of electromagnetic methods to fluid imaging. The purpose is to integrate the measurements with seismic to monitor fluid movement and observe seal integrity changes

Electromagnetic techniques are important for hydrocarbon E&P because they can distinguish between oil and water saturated rock, responding directly to water-filled porosity. Electromagnetics can be applied for exploration to reservoir monitoring.

The course is based on two courses: Electromagnetic methods and Reservoir Characterization with Borehole geophysics.

The course begins by setting the scene with reservoir monitoring overview illustrating the objectives. This is followed by a summary of rock properties linked to reservoir rock performance prepared for linking petrophysical parameters with physical measurements.

Fluid imaging requires the knowledge of the resistivities at reservoir scale and above reservoir scale. The later scaling leading to integration in the 3D seismic cube. We start will review history and basis of electromagnetic methods followed by borehole geophysics methods. The tie to the reservoir parameters is done via the log measurements, which establish the ground truth.

Numerous case histories support each one of the methods.

The course consists of 4 hours lectures daily with special reading and study assignments for the rest of the day that will be discussed the next day.

The borehole geophysics components are the elements of the borehole geophysics course and the electrical methods component follow the EM Course.

The course has been taught at: PTTEP Thailand

The Course is based on several text books

The course will provide a course website with the lectures and supporting downloads: literature, free software and previous course results (term papers etc.). Course participants will receive a password and user name. In addition the textbooks from the borehole geophysics and electrical methods for hydrocarbon course are recommended

Hardage, B.A., 2000, Vertical seismic profiling, Handbook of Geophysical Exploration, Helbig, K. & Treitel, S (eds), 14, Pergamon, 352pp.

Luthi, S.M., 2000, Geological well logs: Their use in reservoir modeling, Springer, 377pp.

Schön, J.H., 1996, Physical Properties of Rocks: Fundamentals and Principles of Petrophysics, Handbook of geophysical exploration - seismic exploration, K. Helbig & S. Treitel (eds.), 18, Pergamon Press (second edition 2004).

Strack, K.-M., 1992 & 1999, Exploration with Long Offset Transient EM, Elsevier

Vozoff, K., 1991, The Magnetotelluric Method, in Electromagnetic Methods in applied geophysics, Nabighian, M.N. (ed.), SEG.


Target audience:
Geoscientists with a basic understanding of geophysics


  • Reservoir Monitoring: a technology motivator
    • Reservoir monitoring methods
    • Issues and trends
    • Potential solutions
  • Rock physics overview      
    • Pore space properties
    • Density of rocks
    • Natural radioactivity of rocks
    • Elastic properties                    
    • Anelastic properties
    • Electrical properties
    • Correlations between properties
  • Introduction, physics & methods
    • History of EM methods                        
  • Methods & instruments              
  • Data processing
  • Introduction to borehole geophysics         
    • Upscaling the measurements
  • Seismic methods
    • VSP
    • Crosswell
    • Single well
    • Microseismic monitoring
    • Seismic while drilling
  • Field equipment                                 
    • Sources and sensors
    • Noise sources
  • VSP processing
    • Basic processing
    • Identification of reflectors
    • Looking ahead of the bit         
  • Land EM applications
    • Defining sediments, basin-scale,
      sub-basalt, sub-salt
    • Shale applications
    • Resolving resistive targets (direct
      hydrocarbon indicators)                      
  • Planning a survey
  • BHS applications
    • Fracture monitoring
    • Cross well tomography ….
    • Single well methods
    • 3D VSP
  • Borehole electromagnetics & gravity 
    • The methods
    • Cross well EM
    • Single well EM
    • Gravity principles & examples
    • BHGM & Gradiometers
  • Logging
    • Overview                            
    • Mud logging (NMR)
    • MWD/LWD             
    • Natural Gamma ray tools
    • Borehole imaging                
    • Resistivity logs                     
    • Sonic logs
    • NMR
  • Geosteering
  • The Future
    • Market trends